Sunday, June 4, 2017

The Optical Wireless Communication Li-Fi which is 100 times faster than WiFi is the Future Broadband Internet

5G Networks could be the next thing in the wireless communication systems as projected in the last Embedded world in Manchester but it could still not be the only next generation wireless communication system emerging as perhaps we can not do without light in this trend.

 The problem with conventional WiFi is that can become extremely irritating especially when too many connections get logged on to the same hotspot. That’s just an inherent fault of WiFi whose protocols share the bandwidth even if that ultimately means no user gets satisfied.

Increasing penetration of smartphones coupled with high demand for mapping portals is expected to stimulate the market for photodetectors components in communication systems. Increasing demand for real-time traffic updates is anticipated to foster the demand for Li-Fi over the period. Up-gradation of prevailing lighting system to communication system might act as a factor for adoption of this technology. However, lack of infrastructure for wireless technology in developing countries is expected to hinder the growth of light fidelity market.
The light fidelity market is classified on the basis of components into photodetectors, LED and microcontrollers. The LED-based light fidelity device can generate the string of binary numbers by switching it on and off and by using the mixture of red, blue and green LEDs the data can be encoded in light by confirming the flickering rate to alter the light frequency. The component transmits the data through the different part of the spectrum. The technological improvements in LED have given a solution by using light for high-speed wireless communication. Photodetectors such as the photodiode are used in detecting and sensing images in the transmitted signal. The demand for image sensing and detecting is increasing owing to its uses in different sectors which are expected to boost the demand for photodetectors in the forecast period. Microcontrollers modulate the data using modulation techniques such as pulse width modulation.
The idea of supporting wireless communication through lights came as a result of this WiFi flaw. LiFi has proved capable of sending data at speeds of up to 1GBps, around 100 times faster than most current Wi-Fi connections. 
The future may soon consist of LED light bulbs connected to a wireless mesh network bringing high-density connections to residential areas and eliminating wireless communication dead zones.
Visible Light Communication (VLC) is not a new technology. In fact, it is quite old. Its history can be traced back in the 1800s with Alexander Graham Bell’s photophone, which used modulated sunlight to transmit speech. VLC is the transfer of information through the use of the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
LiFi, one subset of the optical wireless communication technologies, uses VLC between 400 and 800 THz—much higher than most used radio frequencies. A majority of people are probably more familiar with the lower end of the RF spectrum that supports WiFi—2.4GHz and 5GHz.
Devices equipped with special Light Emitting Diodes (LED) can wirelessly send and receive data 100 times faster than WiFi. In a perfect lab environment, LED communication can reach speeds of 224Gbps. The LED bulbs are dipped and dimmed, up and down, at extremely high speeds not visible to the human eye, contrary to the “visible light spectrum” description. Then, another device with a photodetector reads and converts that light into electrical signal.
LiFi’s strengths make it a highly convincing and worthy investment. The technology’s throughput reaches speeds never thought possible, and its wider bands support more users than WiFi.
However, it has weaknesses, too. Due to its higher frequency, its range is shorter and the area it can cover is smaller. Using LiFi would mean using more transmitters, which increases deployment cost. Because VLC system needs light to communicate, it requires near line-of-sight communication. Devices don’t necessarily need to see each other to exchange data because light can bounce off objects but the waves cannot penetrate walls. Although LiFi’s narrow coverage is a disadvantage, it also offers a security benefit. With shorter range, the footprint is easier to control, and wireless hacks can be avoided.
Will LiFi replace WiFi in the future? Probably not. But both technology can supplement each other. LiFi will be able to support: more clients without channels overlapping; higher speeds when necessary; and stronger security when required. It can also be used in electromagnetic sensitive areas where the use of RF could be hazardous.
LiFi, indeed, is a promising technology that will, hopefully, continue to develop and improve wireless communication.

Sunday, May 28, 2017

A Computer memory uses 1024 Bytes for a KiBiByte and Computer Disk uses 1000 Bytes for a Kilobyte: Now you can stop the confusion of binary and decimal definitions of memories

    Obviously computer engineering and computer science has nothing in common regarding most of the confusions both of them present to each other and to the general public.
     One of such confusions is the unit of measurement for the basic data unit which grew out from bit to bytes to  word and to other higher data units which I do  not really have time to explain here on this post.
It really seems someone is being too technical or someone is trying to deceive people with a unit definition that could literally mean something totally different, and that person could be microsoft which uses the same definition for both memory and disk which is totally wrong.  For all their highly qualified programmers, Microsoft in the early days of computers didn't use the correct units for file sizes and no one cared to stop them till it spread like wanna cry baby, later manufacturers took advantage of that in their intentional misrepresentation the capacity of their disk flash memory devices by using decimal definitions, in which a megabyte is 1,000,000 bytes.
The meomry of computer system which mostly is the RAM is defined in binary terms, with the 2n      rule,
where 8 bits, used as a memory address, can address 256 bytes of memory, 16 bits can address 64 kilobytes of memory which was where early PCs started, 32 bits can address 4 gigabytes and 64 bits can address 16 exabytes.
In the early days of the computer industry, they used "kilo" for 1,024 bytes, then the hard drive industry realised they could put bigger numbers on their drives if they used 1,000, so someone came up with "kibibyte" for 1,024 bytes. It goes kibibyte, mebibyte, gibibyte, tebibyte, pebibyte, exbibyte, zebibyte, and yobibyte, each a factor of 1,024 instead of 1,000. While the hard drive people switched to multiples of 1,000, I don't know if the memory people ever did. But you can see why it was convenient to "round" 1,000 to 1,024 for computers, but then how having more than one definition for metric prefixes was confusing.
There should just be one set of prefixes for everything.
Too bad nobody in the early days of computing thought of making a set a prefixes that are based on some multiple of a power of 2 (1,024 is 2^10 and 10 isn't a power of 2) -- that would be ideal for computers. But it seems to be too late now as Microsoft had ruined everything by following the wrong trend.
Below is the system property of my Fedora Linux and how the memory and disk are defined with differently, binary and decimal respectively.
                                                                                 Linux use Gigabytes correctly
Yottabyte which is currently the largest metric prefix for standard units remains the largest we can think of now for the big data industry, thus these prefixes go kilo, mega, giga, tera, peta, exa, zetta, yotta.
After 64 bits which can address up to can address 16 exabytes 128 bits can address 281,474,976,710,656 yottabytes and we are far from a 128 data bus as of now.
The latest we have heard about is the rumours is the 92-bit bus which will be able to give us an available data of up to 4,096 "yotta"bytes.
Thank you for your time and help stop the confusion microsoft brought to the computer word. 

Saturday, May 20, 2017

WannaCry? Ransomware attack wants you to cry but this is how to stay protected so you do not become a crybaby

Everything about WannaCry Ransomware attack and how to stay protected - KNine Vox
Ransomware is attacking all over the world. According to the latest news, this attack has been reached to more than 90 countries and more and more people are being affected by the same. With the expansion of this attack, many organizations and institutions are issuing their advisory notes and point to be kept in mind to be aware of this attack. As a part of the precautionary measure and as our social responsibility towards our beloved readers, we are giving you a complete detail of this attack and what you should do to be safe and unaffected by this attack.

What is Ransomware?

Ransomware is malicious software that encrypts the contents of the Computer System and device and demands a ransom (money/bitcoin) to unlock it.

What is WannaCry/WannaCrypt Ransomware?

A dangerous ransomware named 'WannaCry'/‘WannaCrypt’ encrypts the files on infected Windows System.
All versions of windows before Windows 10 are vulnerable to this attack if not patched for MS-17-010. Firstly system is affected and then it encrypts the files on that system. After that, it shows a pop up with instructions on how to pay the $300 in bitcoins to decrypt and get back the original files.

How is it spreading?

It is spreading through malicious e-mail attachment. The ransomware spreads by clicking on links and downloading malicious files over internet and email. It is also capable of automatically spreading itself in a network by means of a vulnerability in Windows SMB. Initial ransom was of $300 but the group is increasing the demands up to $600 in bitcoin.

What should you do?

  • Ensure all Computers, Workstations, and Servers have the latest Microsoft patches, especially the ones related to MS17-010.
  • Ensure AV (Anti-Virus) signatures are updated on all assets.
  • Block ports 139, 445 and 3389 in the firewall.
  • Apply Patch for vulnerabilities used by this ransomware from Microsoft and apply security updates from Microsoft, especially for MS17-010.
  • Ensure that security solutions are switched on all nodes of the network.
  • Take a regular backup of your important data and store offline.
  • Perform Full System Scan using installed security software.

What should you not do?

  • Don’t open file namely Mssecvc.exe and Taskche.exe.
  • Don’t use crack Operating System and software on your computer.
  • Don’t open/click any pop-up on your web browser.
  • Don’t enable the auto-download option of your browser.
  • Don’t open attachments in unsolicited e-mails even if they come from the people in your contact list and never click on URL content in an unsolicited e-mail.
  • Don’t pay the ransom. Keep your security software up-to-date with latest updates.
  • Don’t open any spam or unwanted e-mail.

What should you do if your system is infected by WannaCry/WannaCrypt Ransomware?

  • Immediately isolate the system from the network.
  • Preserve the data even it is encrypted.
  • Report incident to concern law enforcement agencies.
So, this was all about this dangerous attack and we hope that these measures will keep you safe from this attack. We will keep you updated with this attack and we will do all possible efforts to make our readers' system and devices safe and secure. 

Explore all the amazing stuff that happened at Google IO, Google Lens and VR, Google Assistance and Everything I/O 2017

At its annual developers' conference, Google highlighted how its machine learning and AI technologies informed improvements across all its platforms. In other words, Google Assistant just got a lot smarter and more useful.
Like each year Google I/O was held and live streamed on YouTube as you know Google take a good amount of pause before starting it but this time they got some games to keep viewers busy by blowing bubbles and catching on their phone each time team blue wins but this wasn't the main attraction.
The main attractions was the improvement in Google assistant and new Android O so let's start.

Google Assistant

A new app has been developed called Google lens, as represented by the name it was an old concept of searching using your camera lens but that time it was not that reliable, now it has been added to assistant which will help you to translate any sign board and do many other things like, you can connect to WiFi just pointing the camera towards the information sticker and you can even take it as a note and can give information about the place you are pointing your camera at like phone number and reviews.
That's not all Google has released its assistant SDK for 3rd party apps even for iOS which will bring a huge development to it and you can do a lot more things with your voice.
From now you can even do transactions, you just need to add your address and card, then you can order anything with talking to the Food ferm AI, you don't need to talk to executive and with just a touch at fingerprint scanner, you will get your order.
Now talking about Google home in U.S, Home will be able to make free calls without any extra hardware requirements.
And from now on, you will also be able to get visual response to your TV by Google home, your TV must have cast options for THIS SERVICE.

Google Photos

Photos has become a major part of many Android users as it stores your whole world, but the main problem is that when you are capturing a function of get-together through your phone, you either do not get a chance to click your photos or you simply forget it, but there is someone in the family who has clicked all the photos on his phone, so Photos has made it easier to share photos, as of now you will be able to share photos without losing quality.
Another update is photo library, you can merge your selected group of photos to a library with a person or family for example if a husband takes a picture of his children it will automatically add to its wife account as well so you can select people of whom photos you want to be common.
And now you can also get your photo book done both in solid cover and digital Google will automatically pick the best pics and merge them with the event after your selection in just 10$, you will get a printed photo book on your door steps.
Google lens is also helpful here if you have taken photos of many objects and monuments assistant will automatically search it for you giving all the information you need.


YouTube has been exceeded a lot with not only mobile but TV also so now you can watch 360° videos in your living room with help of your remote buttons.
A new feature of YouTube is live but you already knew it so what is new in it? It's the comment section in which you can buy paid comment section which will be highlighted and will be pinned to top this will help you to get your comment directly to the broadcaster and they will also be helped financially this is called superchat and Google has also launched its API for all 3rd party apps.

Android O

Like each year this time Google has also introduced new Android OS as last year multitasking was done in split screen but In Android O you will also get an option for floating windows which was earlier available in Samsung devices this was also a awaited feature. Next is notification dots whenever any app will give you notification it will get a dot on top of app icon by long pressing icon you will get the notification as in popup and notification will also be removed from the notification bar.
As you know if you enter any email and password to chrome it can remind it for you and add autofill support to it but this feature is also available to apps.

Google Play Protect

Play services have a huge amount of user as well as developer base and Google is working hard every day to detect malicious apps and deleting them from play store this protect app is just a visual representation of their work and you will also come know what apps are detected malicious.


For the first time in the history of Android, a 3rd party language has been added to Android which will help to increase the app environment for Android and many other languages has been in line too so stay tuned.

Android Go

Many years ago Google has started a project called Android one in which the main concern was to provide good Android phones at affordable price Android go is just the same concept with more filtered technology these mobiles will have their personalized Android O os which will consume fewer data and apps will be small in size to get more out of storage and apps like YouTube go and other lite apps will be preinstalled on play store the lite apps will be recommended first with all other apps.


Last year Google announced daydream with its headset which showed us what a phone can do it can take you to a different world but now Google want to take it a step further they are making a standalone headset with no phones, PC or any cable.
And in AR section with project tango Google has made a new type of navigation called VPS (visual positioning system), it requires no satellite just a defined position of the objects, think you want to go to a supermarket you use maps but once you entered market you want to buy some groceries maps will not tell you where it is rather VPS will take you there.
Later this year S8andS8+ will be supporting daydream.

Wednesday, May 17, 2017

US April University of Michigan Consumer sentiment hits 97.0 against the expected 98.0

Consumer sentiment climbed to 97.7 in mid-May, riding the so-called Trump bump a little longer, The University of Michigan said on Friday.

A customer browses goods at a Costco Wholesale store in New York.
Victor J. Blue | Bloomberg | Getty Images
A customer browses goods at a Costco Wholesale store in New York.
Economists were expecting The University of Michigan's Consumer Sentiment Index to see a smaller preliminary reading of 97, according to Thomson Reuters consensus estimates.
"Consumer sentiment remained on the high plateau established following Trump's election, with the early May figure nearly identical with the December to May average of 97.4," Richard Curtin, a chief economist of the group, wrote in a statement.
The University of Michigan's Consumer Sentiment Index finished April with a reading of 97, up from 89 for the same month a year ago.
"The Trump bump was relatively small given that the Sentiment Index averaged 91.8 in the comparable six month period a year ago and 94.5 in the same period two years ago," Curtin added.
The University of Michigan's survey of Current Economic Conditions remained unchanged for the month at 112.7, while its Index of Consumer Expectations climbed slightly to 88.1, from 87 in April.
Earlier on Friday, the Commerce Department announced retail sales increased 0.4 percent in April from March. Prior to this, sales had ticked up just 0.1 percent in March and fell in February.
The increase suggests consumers may spur faster growth in the quarter of April through June, after the economy just barely expanded in the first three months of 2017.
This monthly survey by the University of Michigan measures 500 consumers' attitudes toward topics such as personal finances, inflation, unemployment, government policies and interest rates.

Friday, May 12, 2017

The Mozilla Foundation has agreed to be the home of Thunderbird, the high-performance open-source secure email client

The uncertainties  behind the most powerful open source email client may have been resolved lately as Mozilla accepted to be the home of the software at least for some time to ease the stress on the Thunderbird council about its independence.
It is only a deal as the Thunderbird council is expected to come up with a timely plan and work closely with the Mozila Corp to help it gain the autonomy it needs to have.
The Mozila's acceptance to oversee this progress is to make it possible for Thunderbird council  to focus on the technical challenges that it has faced for a very long time.
One of the adopted strategy by Thunderbird worked to have  develop a revenue stream, which would be needed regardless of an eventual home. So the Thunderbird Council arranged to collect donations from the app users, with the Mozilla Foundation as fiscal sponsor. Many months of donations have developed a strong revenue stream that has given the council the confidence to begin moving away from Mozilla-hosted infrastructure, and to hire a staff to support this process. Legally  Thunderbird existence is still under the Mozilla Foundation through their ownership of the trademark, and their control of the update path and websites that the council make use of use.
However infrastructure is moving to where they’re already running some Thunderbird-only services.

‘Optimistic about the future of Thunderbird’

The Thunderbird Council say they are “optimistic” about the future.

Saturday, June 17 Where in your area is Global Reddit Meetup Day taking place?Set Your Calendars

  This year, we will be celebrating the eighth (yes, EIGHTH! Can you believe it?) annual Global Reddit Meetup Day on If you’ve never attended a Global Reddit Meetup before, it’s a day where redditors from around the world come together and enjoy each other’s company, laughs, and camaraderie. There are often board games, brass bands, barbecues, bouncy houses, beverages, and who knows—maybe a surprise guest or two?
Reddit is home to millions of people, communities, and conversations online. Together over the years, you’ve taken inspiration from each other’s ideas, and you’ve turned some of the internet’s most remarkable ideas into IRL moments. One such idea came in late 2009, when users in r/meetup suggested a GLOBAL Reddit meetup. Since then, every summer, we (deliberately) encourage you to get off Reddit (for at least one day) and meet fellow redditors IRL.

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